ISRO



ISRO or the Indian Space Research Organization owns launches and operates a number of satellites (INSAT) that are used for communication, earth observation, scientific & education and navigation. 



History


India decided to go to space when the Government set up Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962. With the visionary Dr. Vikram Sarabhai at its helm, INCOSPAR set up the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in Thiruvananthapuram for upper atmospheric research.

Indian Space Research Organization, formed in 1969, superseded the erstwhile INCOSPAR. Vikram Sarabhai, having identified the role and importance of space technology in a Nation's development, provided ISRO the necessary direction to function as an agent of development. ISRO then embarked on its mission to provide the Nation space based services and to develop the technologies to achieve the same independently.

Throughout the years, ISRO has upheld its mission of bringing space to the service of the common man, to the service of the Nation. In the process, it has become one of the six largest space agencies in the world. ISRO maintains one of the largest fleet of communication satellites (INSAT) and remote sensing (IRS) satellites, that cater to the ever-growing demand for fast and reliable communication and earth observation respectively. ISRO develops and delivers application specific satellite products and tools to the Nation: broadcasts, communications, weather forecasts, disaster management tools, Geographic Information Systems, cartography, navigation, telemedicine, dedicated distance education satellites being some of them.

To achieve complete self-reliance in terms of these applications, it was essential to develop cost efficient and reliable launch systems, which took shape in the form of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). The famed PSLV went on to become a favored carrier for satellites of various countries due to its reliability and cost efficiency, promoting unprecedented international collaboration. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) was developed keeping in mind the heavier and more demanding geosynchronous communication satellites.

Apart from technological capability, ISRO has also contributed to science and science education in the country. Various dedicated research centers and autonomous institutions for remote sensing, astronomy and astrophysics, atmospheric sciences and space sciences in general function under the aegis of Department of Space. ISRO's own Lunar and interplanetary missions along with other scientific projects encourage and promote science education, apart from providing valuable data to the scientific community, which in turn enriches science.

Future readiness is the key to maintaining an edge in technology and ISRO endeavours to optimize and enhance its technologies as the needs and ambitions of the country evolve. Thus, ISRO is moving forward with the development of heavy lift launchers, human spaceflight projects, reusable launch vehicles, semi-cryogenic engines, single and two stage to orbit (SSTO and TSTO) vehicles, development and use of composite materials for space applications etc.


Communication Satellites

The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in Asia-Pacific region with nine operational communication satellites placed in Geo-stationary orbit. Established in 1983 with commissioning of INSAT-1B, it initiated a major revolution in India’s communications sector and sustained the same later.

The system with a total of 195 transponders in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, satellite news gathering (SNG), societal applications, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and Rescue operations.



References:

www.isro.gov.in
www.satbeams.com
www.spaceflight101.com
www.spaceVids.tv
www.wikipedia.org
www.space.skyrocket.de



Satellites

INSAT-1A

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 10 Apr 1982
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Satellite lost in Sept 1983 due to control propellant exhaust.

INSAT-1B

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 30 Aug 1983
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Satellite almost lost due to control propellant exhaust but put in service till 1990 when it retired in 1993.

INSAT-1C

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 21 July 1988
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 3
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: C-band and S-band transponders were lost due to Power systems failures.

INSAT-1D

Orbital Position:
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 12 June 1990
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta 4925
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Satellite is retired.

INSAT-2A

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 10 July 1992
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 4
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: Satellite is retired.

INSAT-2B

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 23 July 1993
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44L
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: Satellite is retired.

INSAT-2C

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 07 Dec 1995
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44L
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: Satellite is retired.

INSAT-2D

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 04 June 1997
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 4
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: Satellite is retired.

INSAT-2DT

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO))
Launch date: 01 Jan 1998
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44L
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: Satellite is retired.

INSAT-2E (Intelsat APR-2)

Orbital Position: 83° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 03 Apr 1999
Launch Operator: China Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWIC)
Launch vehicle: Long March LM-3B/E
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Last of the INSAT-2 series satellites, retired.

INSAT-3A

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 09 Apr 2003
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5G
Expected life time: 12 years

GSAT-1

Orbital Position:
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 18 Apr 2001
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-D1
Expected life time: 10 years

Note: Experimental Communications Satellite and carries four scientific payloads.

KALPANA-1 (METSAT)

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 12 Sept 2002
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle - PSLV-C4
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: Renamed as Kalpana-1 on Feb 5th , 2003 after the Indian born American Astronaut Dr. Kalpana Chawla, who died on Feb 1st, 2003 in the US Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. It is the first in the series of exclusive meteorological satellites.

INSAT-3C

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 23 Jan 2002
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 42L
Expected life time: 12 years

INSAT-3E

Orbital Position: 55° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 27 Sept 2003
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5G
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Satellite is retired since April 2014.

GSAT-2

Orbital Position: 48° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 08 May 2003
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-D2
Expected life time: 10 years

Note: Experimental Communications Satellite and carries four scientific payloads.

EduSat (GSAT-3)

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 20 Sept 2004
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-MkII
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: Satellite is retired.

INSAT-4A

Orbital Position: 83° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 21 Dec 2005
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5GS
Expected life time: 12 years

INSAT-4B

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 11 March 2007
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ECA
Expected life time: 12 years

INSAT-4C

Orbital Position: -
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: March 2007
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Launch failure, satellite lost

Youtube: Watch the INSAT-4C satellite launch!
 

INSAT-4CR

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 02 Sept 2007
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-MkII
Expected life time: 10 years

Youtube: Watch the INSAT-4CR satellite launch!

GSAT-4

Orbital Position: -
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 15 Apr 2010
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-D3
Expected life time: 7+ years

Note: Exprimental satellite but was not placed in orbit due to malfunctioning of launch vehicle.

GSAT-5P

Orbital Position: -
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 25 Dec 2010
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-F06
Expected life time: 7+ years

Note: Satellite not placed in orbit due to malfunctioning of launch vehicle.

GSAT-8 (INSAT-4G)

Orbital Position: 55° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 19 May 2011
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ECA
Expected life time: 12 years

Youtube: Watch the GSAT-8 (INSAT-4G) satellite launch!

GSAT-12

Orbital Position: 83° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 15 July 2011
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle - PSLV
Expected life time: 8 years

Youtube: Watch the GSAT-12 satellite launch!

GSAT-10

Orbital Position: 83° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 28 Sept 2012
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ECA
Expected life time: 15 years

Youtube: Watch the GSAT-10 satellite launch!

INSAT-3D

Orbital Position: 82° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 26 July 2013
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5G
Expected life time: 7 years

Note: designed for enhanced meteorological observations, monitoring of land and ocean surfaces.

GSAT-7 (INSAT-4F)

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 30 Aug 2013
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ECA
Expected lifetime: 7+ years

GSAT-14

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 05 Jan 2014
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-D5
Expected life time: 12+ years

GSAT-16

Orbital Position: 48° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 07 Dec 2014
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ECA
Expected life time: 12 years

Youtube: Watch the GSAT-16 satellite launch!

GSAT-6

Orbital Position: 83° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 27 Aug 2015
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-D6
Expected life time: 9 years

Youtube: Watch the GSAT-6 satellite launch!

GSAT-15

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 11 Nov 2015
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane V
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Dual launch with Arabsat's ArabSat-6B (BADR-7).

YouTube: Watch the GSAT-15 satellite launch 

GSAT-18

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 06 Oct 2016
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane V
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: Dual launch with Australian NBN's Sky Muster-2 satellite.

YouTube: Watch the GSAT-18 satellite launch 

GSAT-11

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 2017
Launch vehicle: Arianespace S.A. 
Expected life time: 15+ years

Note: GSAT-11 satellite was planned to be launched by ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-MkIII) but is now scheduled to be launched by Arianespace

GSAT-9 (South Asia Satellite)

Orbital Position: 48° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 5 May 2017
Launch Operator: ISRO
Launch vehicle: ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle - GSLV-MkII
Expected life time: 12+ years

Note: India has developed GSAT-9 satellite to provide services to members of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).

YouTube: Watch the launch of ISRO's GSAT-9 satellite from the Indian Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.

GSAT-19

Orbital Position: 74° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 05 June 2017
Launch Operator: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch vehicle: GSLV MKIII
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: GSAT-19 is an experimental satellite for testing new technologies. The satellite is the heaviest spacecraft launched from Indian soil. Also this was the first developmental flight of the GSLV MKIII launch vehicle from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SHAR).

YouTube: Watch the GSAT-19 satellite launch 

GSAT-17

Orbital Position: 94° E
Manufacturer: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Launch date: 28 June 2017
Launch Operator: Arianespace
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ECA
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: GSAT-17 will be launched in a dual launch with Hellas-Sat's Hellas-Sat-3 satellite on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle.