PanAmSat



PanAmSat was the largest distributor of television signals in the world and the number-one provider of HDTV channels in America. After a few acquisitions PanAmSat merged with Intelsat Corp. on June 20th, 2006.



History


The former PanAmSat Corporation founded in 1984 by Reynold (Rene) Anselmo, was a satellite service provider headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut, USA. That time PanAmSat operated a fleet of communications satellites used by the entertainment industry, news agencies, Internet service providers, governmental organizations and telecommunication companies. Anselmo got the idea for PanAmSat from Martine Rothblatt, an independent communications lawyer in Washington, D.C., to whom he had turned to for advice regarding difficulties he was encountering in getting reasonably priced satellite transmission of his UHF-TV based Spanish International Network (SIN), with studios on 42nd Street in New York City. Rothblatt had written a business plan entitled PanAmSat for her MBA thesis at UCLA's Graduate School of Management and was seeking a financial support. Anselmo partnered with Rothblatt on the PanAmSat project, with Anselmo providing financing and Rothblatt filing for approval from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and lining up an initial satellite from RCA Astro-Electronics and a heavily discounted launch from Arianespace.


PanAmSat effectively broke the monopoly on international satellite communications that was held by Intelsat, an international treaty-based organization founded and owned by several countries including the United States. PanAmSat, led by Anselmo, successfully lobbied the United States Congress to permit it to operate globally, competing against Intelsat. PanAmSat became famous for full-page advertisements in the Wall Street Journal depicting Spot, the PanAmSat mascot, urinating on politicians' legs. The company's motto was "Truth and Technology Will Triumph Over Bullshit and Bureaucracy."


Rene Anselmo died in 1995 and his wife Mary Anselmo controlled the company for a period of time when PanAmSat was sold to Hughes Electronics, a division of General Motors, in a $3 billion cash and stock deal. The satellite operations continued to be under PanAmSat with Hughes being the majority shareholder. In May 1997, Hughes Communication Galaxy merged with PanAmSat, adding 9 more satellites of the Galaxy-series to its fleet. As one of the earliest geostationary satellites, Galaxy-1 was launched on June 28, 1983. The latest, Galaxy-19, was launched on September 9th, 2008.


In 2003, News Corporation purchased Hughes Electronic's PanAmSat division and on April 24th, 2004 sold PanAmSat to a consortium of private equity firms in a leveraged buyout including Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR), Carlyle Group and Providence Equity Partners for $4.3 billion.


On July 20th, 2005 PanAmSat announced that it had signed an agreement with Alcatel Spacecom of France for the acquisition of multiple European orbital slots as well as the powerful satellite, Europe*Star with a footprint over Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia. The new PAS-12 satellite, formerly known as Europe*Star-1, would enable PanAmSat to provide a broad range of enhanced services to European customers for program distribution, broadcast contribution and enterprise networking.


As part of PanAmSat's innovative growth strategy, the Company also entered into an agreement with Japan's Skyperfect JSAT to form a joint venture to launch a new Ku-band satellite at 74° W longitude to satisfy the growing demand in the U.S. market. The joint venture, Horizons-2, included a high-powered satellite that would support everything from digital video, high-definition television (HDTV) and IP-based content distribution networks to broadband Internet and satellite news gathering services (SNG).



SBS-satellites


Satellite Business Systems, (SBS), was founded on December 15th 1975 by IBM, Aetna, COMSAT (and later wholly purchased by IBM and then subsequently sold to MCI), that provided private professional satellite communications through its SBS fleet (SBS-1 to 6) of FSS geosynchronous satellites, and was the first company to do so.

The SBS-1 to 6 satellites were built by Hughes using the HS-376 platform of satellite, with the exception of SBS-6, which used the HS-393 platform.

SBS-1 to 6 have since reached EOL and are no longer in service, SBS-6 was the last SBS satellite in operation at 74° W longitude, it was de-commissioned in July 2007 and replaced by Intelsat's Galaxy-17.

In July 1984, Comsat left SBS, and exactly a year later, Satellite Business Systems was sold to MCI. MCI migrated the voice and data traffic of most SBS customers to its terrestrial network. During the sale of SBS to MCI, four satellites (SBS-1 to 4) were then in orbit.

In 1987, SBS' fleet was sold off. SBS-1 and 2 were sold to Comsat, SBS-3 remained with MCI, and SBS-4 was sold to IBM's Satellite Transponder Leasing Corporation (STLC) together with the SBS-5 and 6 satellites, which were then still on the ground.

In April 1990, Hughes Communications Inc. (HCI), a subsidiary of Hughes Aircraft (who built the satellites) bought STLC from IBM. Sometime later (around 1992) SBS-3 was sold to Comsat that was later bought by Lockheed Martin.

Due to the divestiture of its fleet (to MCI & HCI, and ironically to Comsat and IBM as well, the former founders of SBS), SBS no longer existed as an entity, with the last satellite left of its fleet, SBS-6 was de-commissioned in July 2007 and last owned by Intelsat.



Leveraged buyout


KKR led the 2004 leveraged buyout by purchasing a 44% stake in the company. The private equity owners sold PanAmSat to its archrival Intelsat in August 2005 for a total of $4.3 billion in July 2006. At the time of its sale, PanAmSat was the world's leading carrier of TV channels. In combination with Intelsat (which had also gone private under private equity ownership in 2000), the new company, called Intelsat, is the world's largest commercial satellite company, with over 50 satellites in orbit serving over 220 countries, with nearly 1400 employees.




References

www.wikipedia.com
www.space.skyrocket.de
www.spaceref.com   (edition 21 December 2000)
www.intelsat.com
www.satbeams.com
www.astronautix.com
www.daviddarling.info
www.spaceref.com
www.spacewar.com
www.spacedaily.com
www.defenseindustrydaily.com  (edition 20 Aug 2005)
www.claudelafleur.qc.ca





Satellites

SBS-1

Orbital Position: 100° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Nov 1980
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta

Note: Retired Jan 1990.

SBS-2

Orbital Position: 97° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Sept 1981
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta

Note: Retired Jan 1996

SBS-3

Orbital Position: 94° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 11 Nov 1982
Launch Operator: NASA
Launch vehicle: Space Shuttle Columbia STS5

Note: Retired Jan 1995

Galaxy-1

Orbital Position: 134° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 June 1983
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta

Note: Retired April 1992. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997. Galaxy-1R was planned to replace Galaxy-1 but was lost during launch. Galaxy-5 was the temporary replacement till Galaxy-1RR was launched.

Galaxy-2

Orbital Position: 74° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Sept 1984
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta

Note: Retired May 1994. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

SBS-4

Orbital Position: 77° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 30 Aug 1984
Launch Operator: NASA
Launch vehicle: Space Shuttle Discovery STS41-D

Note: Retired Aug 1999

YouTube: Watch the Space Shuttle Discovery STS41-D Mission! 

Galaxy-3

Orbital Position: 94° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Sept 1984
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta

Note: Retired May 1995. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

PAS-1

Orbital Position: 45° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: General Electric (Hughes Aircraft - Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 15 June 1988
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44LP
Expected life time: 12 years

Note: World’s first commercial Satellite! Retired Feb 2001

SBS-5

Orbital Position: 123° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Sept 1988
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 3

Note: Retired March 2000

SBS-6

Orbital Position: 121° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Oct 1990
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44L

Note: Retired March 2000

Galaxy-5

Orbital Position: 125° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 14 Oct 1992
Launch Operator: Lockheed Martin (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Atlas I

Note: Retired Jan 2005. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

Galaxy-1R

Orbital Position: -
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 22 Aug 1992
Launch Operator: Lockheed Martin (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Atlas I

Note: Galaxy-1R was planned to replace Galaxy-1 that was EOL but was lost during a launch failure on 22 Aug 1992. 

Galaxy-7

Orbital Position: 91° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 27 Oct 1992
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 42P+

Note: On orbit failure Nov 2000. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

Galaxy-4

Orbital Position: 99° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 June 1993
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 42P+

Note: On orbit failure May 1998. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

Galaxy-4R

Orbital Position: 180° E
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 19 Feb 1994
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta II

Noted: Retired July 2006. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

PAS-2 (IS-2, Intelsat-2)

Orbital Position: 169° E
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 08 July 1994
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44L
Expected life time: 14 years (de-orbited)

Note: Satellite is retired.

PAS-3

Orbital Position: -
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Dec 1994
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 42P

Note: Launch failure 01 Dec 1994

PAS-4

Orbital Position: 68° E
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 03 Aug 1995
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 42L

Note: Launch failure 01 Dec 1994.

Galaxy-3R

Orbital Position: 95° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Dec 1995
Launch Operator: Lockheed Martin (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Atlas IIA

Note: On orbit failure March 2006. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

PAS-3R (IS-3R, Intelsat-3R)

Orbital Position: 81° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 12 Jan 1996
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44L
Expected life time: 13 years

Note: Retired. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

PAS-6

Orbital Position: 43° W
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral
Launch date: 08 Aug 1997
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44P

Note: On orbit failure Apr 2004.

PAS-5 (Intelsat-5, Arabsat-2C, Badr-C)

Orbital Position: 157° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 27 Aug 1997
Launch Operator: International Launch Services (ILS) 
Launch vehicle: Proton K
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: PanAmSat leased C-band transponders to Arabsat since their ArabSat-3C satellite was lost. The PanAmSat PAS-5 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-5 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006
 

Galaxy-8i (G-8i)

Orbital Position: 95° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 08 Dec 1997
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta II

Note: Retired Jan 2002. Formerly owned and operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy when PanAmSat merged with Hughes in May 1997.

Galaxy-10

Orbital Position: -
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 26 Aug 1998
Launch Operator: Boeing Defense, Space & Security (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Delta III

Note: Satellite was lost during a launch failure during the maiden flight of the Delta III rocket on 26 Aug 1998. 

PAS-7 (Intelsat-7, IS-7)

Orbital Position: 18° W
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral (SS/L)
Launch date: 15 Sept 1998
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44LP
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-7 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-7 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.

PAS-8 (Intelsat-8, IS-8)

Orbital Position: 169° E
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral (SS/L)
Launch date: 04 Nov 1998
Launch Operator: International Launch Services (ILS)
Launch vehicle: Proton K
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-8 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-8 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.
 

PAS-6B (Intelsat-6B)

Orbital Position: 43° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 22 Dec 1998
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 42L
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-6B satellite was renamed in Intelsat-6B when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006. Due to various failures with the engines the lifetime has been reduced.

Galaxy-11 (G-11)

Orbital Position: 56° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 21 Dec 1999
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44L
Expected life time: 14 years

Galaxy-10R (G-10R)

Orbital Position: 180° E
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 24 Jan 2000
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 42L

Note: Retired May 2008. Galaxy-10R was built to replace Galaxy-10 that was lost during launch. The satellite was operated by Hughes Communication Galaxy prior to the merge with PanAmSat in May 1997.  

PAS-9 (IS-9, Intelsat-9)

Orbital Position: 43° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 28 July 2000
Launch Operator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-9 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-9 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.

PAS-12 (IS-12, Intelsat-12, Europe*Star-1)

Orbital Position: 45° E
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral (SS/L)
Launch date: 29 Oct 2000
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 44LP
Expected life time: 18 years

Note: Europe*Star was joint venture between Alcatel Spacecom of France and Loral Space & Communications and provided Ku-band satellite capacity for Electroteks, an international telecom carrier and broadcasting company based in Colombo, Sri Lanka, to carry ethnic Sri Lankan TV direct from Sri Lanka to Europe.

In July 2005, Europe*Star-1 was sold to PanAmSat and the name was changed to PAS-12. The PanAmSat PAS-12 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-12 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.
 

PAS-1R (IS-1R, Intelsat-1R)

Orbital Position: 50° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 15 Nov 2000
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5G
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-1R satellite was renamed in Intelsat-1R when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.
 

PAS-10 (IS-10, Intelsat-10)

Orbital Position: 47° W (inclined)
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 14 May 2001
Launch Operator: International Launch Services (ILS) 
Launch vehicle: Proton K
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-10 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-10 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.

Galaxy-3C (G-3C)

Orbital Position: 95° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 15 June 2002
Launch Operator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 15 years

Galaxy-12 (G-12, Galaxy XII)

Orbital Position: 129° W
Manufacturer: Orbital Sciences Corp. (Orbital ATK, Inc.)
Launch date: 09 Apr 2003
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5G
Expected life time: 15 years

Galaxy-14 (G-14)

Orbital Position: 125° W
Manufacturer: Orbital Sciences Corp. (Orbital ATK, Inc.)
Launch date: 09 Apr 2003
Launch Operator: RKK Energya
Launch vehicle: Soyuz-Fregat
Expected life time: 15 years

Youtube: Watch the Galaxy-14 satellite launch!

Galaxy-13 (Horizons-1, Linkstar-4, Galaxy XIII)

Orbital Position: 129° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Oct 2003
Launch Oprator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: Horizons-1 is owned and operated by Horizons, a SkyPerfect JSAT and PanAmSat (Intelsat) joint venture. SkyPerfect JSAT markets the Ku-capacity through its US subsidiary, JSAT International.

Horizons-1 (Linkstar-4, Galaxy-13, G-13, Galaxy XIII)

Orbital Position: 129° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 01 Oct 2003
Launch Operator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: Horizons' satellites are operated by Horizons Satellite LLC, a joint subsidiary of PanAmSat (Intelsat) and JSAT Corporation. SkyPerfect JSAT markets the Ku-capacity through its US subsidiary, JSAT International.
 

Galaxy-15 (G-15)

Orbital Position: 133° W
Manufacturer: Orbital Sciences Corp. (Orbital ATK, Inc.)
Launch date: 13 Oct 2005
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5G
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: Current owner Intelsat reported on December 27th 2010 an in orbit failure of the command system. The satellite was recovered in April 2011.
 

Galaxy-16 (G-16)

Orbital Position: 99° W
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral (SS/L)
Launch date: 18 June 2006
Launch Operator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 15 years

Galaxy-17 (G-17)

Orbital Position: 91° W
Manufacturer: Thales Alenia Space
Launch date: 04 May 2007
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ECA
Expected life time: 15 years

Youtube: Watch the Galaxy-17 satellite launch!

PAS-11 (IS-11, Intelsat-11)

Orbital Position: 43° W
Manufacturer: EADS Astrium (Airbus Defense & Space)
Launch date: 05 Oct 2007
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5GS
Expected life time: 13 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-11 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-11 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006
Youtube: Watch the Intelsat-11 satellite launch!

Horizons-2

Oribital Poition: 85° E
Manufacturer: Orbital Sciences Corp. (Orbital ATK, Inc.)
Launch date: 22 Dec 2007
Launch Operator: Arianespace S.A.
Launch vehicle: Ariane 5ES
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: Horizons satellites are operated by Horizons Satellite LLC, a joint subsidiary of PanAmSat (Intelsat) and JSAT Corporation.

Youtube: Watch the Horizons-2 satelite launch!

Galaxy-18 (G-18)

Orbital Position: 123° W
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral (SS/L)
Launch date: 21 May 2008
Launch Operator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 15 years

Youtube: Watch the Intelsat Galaxy-18 satellite launch!

Galaxy-19 (G-19, Intelsat Americas-9 (IA-9))

Orbital Position: 97° W
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral (SS/L)
Launch date: 24 Sept 2008
Launch Operator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 20 years

Youtube: Watch the Intelsat Galaxy-19 satellite launch!

PAS-14 (IS-14, Intelsat-14)

Orbital Position: 45° W
Manufacturer: Space Systems/Loral (SS/L)
Launch date: 23 Nov 2009
Launch Operator: United Launch Alliance (ULA)
Launch vehicle: Atlas V
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-14 satellite was renamed in Intelsat-14 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.

Youtube: Watch the Intelsat-14 satellite launch!

PAS-11R (IS-16, Intelsat-16)

Orbital Position: 79° W
Manufacturer: Orbital Sciences Corp. (Orbital ATK, Inc.)
Launch date: 12 Nov 2010
Launch Operator: International Launch Services (ILS)
Launch vehicle: Proton M
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-11R satellite was renamed in Intelsat-16 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006

Youtube: Watch the Intelsat-16 satellite launch!

PAS-21 (IS-21, Intelsat-21)

Orbital Position: 58° W
Manufacturer: Hughes Space & Communications (Boeing CSS)
Launch date: 19 Aug 2012
Launch Operator: Sea Launch A.G.
Launch vehicle: Zenit 3SL
Expected life time: 15 years

Note: The PanAmSat PAS-21 satellite was renamed in Intelsat- 21 when PanAmSat was acquired by Intelsat in 2006.

Youtube: Watch the PAS-21 (ntelsat-21) satellite launch!