PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk. (PT Telkom)
PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk, (Telkom Indonesia or TELKOM), is a satellite operator in Indonesia. TELKOM is partly privatized and the majority is a state-owned company listed on multiple exchanges.
Telkom Indonesia is the telecommunication business unit mainly in fixed line telephony, internet and data communications. It is also the parent company of the Telkom Group, which is engaged in a broad range of businesses that consist of telecommunication, multimedia, property and finance services.
TELKOM's history started in 1856, with the operation of Indonesia's first electromagnetic telegraph by the Dutch Colonial Government connecting Batavia (Jakarta) and Buitenzorg (Bogor).
In 1884, the Dutch colonial government founded a private company to provide postal and domestic telegraph services and, later on, international telegraph services. Telephony had been introduced to Indonesia in 1882. Telephony services were provided by privately owned companies under a 25-year government license until 1906, when all postal and telecommunications services in Indonesia were taken over by a government agency established by the Dutch colonial government.
In 1961, most of these services were transferred to a newly- established state-owned company. Four years later, in 1965, the Government separated postal and telecommunications services into two state-owned companies, PN Post & Giro and PN Telekomunikasi.
In 1974, PN Telekomunikasi was further divided into two state-owned companies. Perusahaan Umum Telekomunikasi (Perumtel) provided domestic and international telecommunications services, while PT Industri Telekomunikasi Indonesia (PT INTI) manufactured telecommunications equipment. A further division in 1980 saw the international telecommunications business taken over by the newly established PT Indonesian Satellite Corporation (Indosat). The company connected to Intelsat satellite network and built up a Teleport in Indonesia, to access Intelsat's Indian Ocean Region satellites until 1989.
In 1991 Perumtel became a state-owned limited liability corporation and renamed Perusahaan Perseroan (Persero) PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia, or TELKOM.
In 1995, TELKOM reorganized the twelve Witels into seven regional divisions covering the main land and various islands. In November that year TELKOM shares went on sale through an initial public offering on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.
Mid 1997 Indonesia was badly affected by the Asian economic crisis. Several partners experienced difficulties in fulfilling their obligations to TELKOM who eventually acquired control of its partners in the regions.
By 1998 the industry landscape underwent considerable changes and reformations resulting in the elimination of the joint ownership, by TELKOM and Indosat, of most of the telecommunications companies in Indonesia. Later that year (28 September 1998), as an effort to improve the global competitiveness of Indonesian satellite operators, the ASSI was established by five satellite operators, PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk, PT Indosat Tbk, PT Satelindo (merged with PT Indosat Tbk in 2004), PT Pasifik Satelit Nusantara (PSN) and PT Media Citra Indostar.
In 2005, TELKOM launched TELKOM-2 Satellite to replace all satellite transmission services that have been served by previous satellite, Palapa-B4. In addition, to become TELKOM's backbone transmission, TELKOM-2 satellite will support national telecommunications network to fulfill rural and multimedia telecommunication needs.
Therefore, TELKOM has launched eight satellites (including Palapa-A1), named Palapa-A2 (1985), Palapa-B1 (1983), Palapa-B2P (1987), Palapa-B2R (1990), Palapa-B4 (1992), TELKOM-1 (1999) and TELKOM-2 (2005). All of these satellites have become a part of Indonesian's Telecommunication's history.
In August 2012, the TELKOM-3 satellite was lost during a launch failure. The satellite was being placed into an unusably low orbit following the failure of the Briz-M upper stage of the Proton-M rocket of launch operator ILS, that had launched it. The failure forced TELKOM to lease capacity from third parties. The company has lease contracts with Sky Perfect JSAT, Eutelsat, ChinaSat and Intelsat for a total of 30 transponders.
The planned sixth satellite, TELKOM-3S that is replacing TELKOM-1 and scheduled to put in orbit in 2014, was delayed. TELKOM-3S, which will expand PT Telkom’s C-band capacity and could include also Ka-band will be position at 118°. The launch took place on February 14th, 2017 and was performed by Arianespace with their Ariane 5 launch vehicle.
In 2012 PT Telkom and PT Indosat agreed to provide joint satellite services for their subscribers in Indonesia. The new satellite, Palapa-E would operate to meet future need of HD television and telecommunication services of Indonesia. Both the companies agreed to spend 200 million USD for the procurement of the Palapa-E spacecraft that was built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital ATK, Inc.). The new satellite replaced the Palapa-C2, which stopped orbiting in 2014.
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